Table 1

Immunotherapy agents for GI malignancies

GI malignanciesImmunotherapy
 Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus
  •  ICI: nivolumab.

 Gastric cancers
  •  ICIs: pembrolizumab and nivolumab.

  •  Adoptive T-cell transfer: under investigation.

 Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma
  •  ICIs: pembrolizumab and nivolumab.

 Pancreatic cancers
  •  ICI: pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, and Ipilimumab.

  •  Vaccine-based immunotherapy: clinical trials ongoing for a combination of GVAX+CRS-207±nivolumab.*

  •  Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor: indoximod.

  •  CCR2/CCL2 signaling pathway inhibitor: clinical trials ongoing for PF-04136309.

 Hepatobiliary cancers
  •  ICI: nivolumab showed promising results, clinical trials ongoing for pembrolizumab, tremelimumab, ipilimumab, atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab.

  •  Vaccine-based immunotherapy: HEPAVAC project ongoing.

  •  Adoptive T-cell transfer: under investigation.

 Colorectal cancers
  •  ICIs: pembrolizumab and nivolumab.

  •  Vaccine-based immunotherapy: clinical trial ongoing for talimogene laherparepvec local injection vaccine+atezolizumab.

  •  Adoptive T-cell transfer: chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.

  • *GVAX: pancreatic cancer cell line that expresses GM-CSF; CRS-207: iive-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes strain that expresses mesothelin.

  • GI, gastrointestinal; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor.