Table 3

Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrating associations with head injury-associated hospitalization and head CT use

FactorsHospitalization*Head CT
Adjusted OR†95% CIP valueAdjusted OR‡95% CIP value
 Pre-COVID-19 (2019)(ref)(ref)
 COVID-19 (2020)2.331.25 to 4.340.0081.040.67 to 1.610.87
 Black0.420.20 to 0.870.020.390.24 to 0.63<0.001
Interaction: race×era1.290.37 to 4.500.690.790.30 to 2.070.64
 Black patients in pre-COVID-19 era0.360.13 to to 0.720.002
 Black patients in COVID-19 era0.470.19 to to 0.760.009
National ADI rank
 1–25 (highest SES)(ref)(ref)
 26–501.040.47 to 2.320.920.810.49 to 1.350.42
 51–750.800.31 to 2.090.650.360.17 to 0.770.009
 76–100 (lowest SES)0.480.16 to 1.490.200.550.26 to 1.190.13
 Male1.380.73 to 2.590.321.060.70 to 1.590.16
 ≥20.300.16 to 0.56<0.0011.140.68 to 1.910.63
 HispanicN/A§N/AN/A0.240.03 to 1.760.16
Presenting hospital
 Academic hospital (PED 3)N/A¶N/AN/A(ref)
 Community hospital (PED 1 and 2)2.161.38 to 3.380.001
  • *Hospitalization was assessed by a subgroup analysis among patients presenting to PED 3 only.

  • †Adjusted for race, sex, and age group.

  • ‡Adjusted for race, ADI rank, sex, age group, ethnicity, and presenting hospital.

  • §Ethnicity was not included in the model because there were no patients in the Hispanic group with a head injury-associated hospitalization.

  • ¶Presenting hospital was not applicable since the model only consists of patients evaluated at PED 3.

  • ADI, Area Deprivation Index; N/A, not available; SES, socioeconomic status.